Pregnancy promoter and protector
A conversation with Oster: Q Have you written the “Freakonomics” of pregnancy? A I think it’s right that it feels a little bit like “Freakonomics” because Steve (Levitt) and I are both economists, but the goal here was really to write down an approach that was right for me. The approach being thinking carefully through all of these decisions, getting the best data that you can, and then structuring the decision in a way that takes into account your personal preferences, tolerance for risk and all the kinds of things that we should be thinking about every day. Q Do you anticipate blowback from women and doctors because you’re an economist and not a medical professional who helps manage pregnancies? A For sure, but I certainly do not envision women reading this book and saying, “Oh, like, I can deliver my own baby now, right?” I think that there’s a real sense in which pregnancy should be something that you do with your doctor, but I think that for a lot of women the time you have with your doctors is limited, and it can be difficult to get all of the answers to your questions. Q Are most pregnant women ill-informed? Are doctors and other pregnancy professionals lax in keeping up to date on research that might lead to more specific recommendations?
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The Mayo Clinic gives some good guidelines for pregnancy weight gain for carrying one child: Underweight at pregnancy (BMI less than 18.5) – 28 to 40 pounds Normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) – 25-35 pounds Overweight (BMI 25-29.9) – 15-25 pounds Obese (BMI of 30 or more) – 11-20 pounds If a woman gains too much weight during pregnancy, it increases her risk for complications such as preeclampsia (high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine) and for obesity after delivery, and also ups the baby’s risk for childhood obesity. Many pregnant women have exercise programs, but they tend to focus on physical-activity guidelines of 30 minutes a day. The new research however, found that staying active throughout the day is more beneficial in preventing excess weight gain. For example, a woman who didn’t have a specific workout session but was active all day — such as a waitress or a mother who has young children and is always on the move — would get more exercise and burn more calories overall than a woman who had an exercise session but was otherwise inactive during the day. The findings show that it’s important for pregnant women to increase their overall daily levels of activity.
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Study: Exercise helps prevent excess weight gain during pregnancy
23, 2013 8:00 AM The molecular players that participate in uterine receptivity and implantation and that protect the uterus from bacterial toxins in general and during pregnancy are incompletely defined. (iStock) Bibhash Paria , Ph.D., associate professor of Pediatrics,and colleagues explored the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzymes in the hamster uterus during estrous cycles and early pregnancy. They report in the journal Reproduction that hamsters express two AP enzymes in uterine epithelial cells and the expression shows cyclic variation, suggesting regulation by steroid hormones. The investigators also found regulated expression patterns for the AP enzymes during implantation and decidualization (the change of the endometrium to support pregnancy). They further demonstrated that the AP enzymes detoxified the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide at their sites of expression, suggesting that they have a role in protecting the uterus against bacterial infection.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://news.vanderbilt.edu/2013/08/pregnancy-promoter-protector/